Craig Davies for Art-Sheep

When one thinks of Hollywood in the ’40s and ’50s, it’s easy to imagine pin-up, glamour and historical stars and movies, such as Rita Hayworth and Casablanca, however, there was a flip side to the industry’s fame and allure, as the war had managed to taint even the artistic milieu. During this era, exhibiting Communist tendencies or inclinations was enough reason to cause the end of one’s career. To be featured in the blacklists created to mark individuals as leftists had resulted in a big number of artists being banned from playing in, virtually, every medium available, from film to TV to the radio, sometimes only on the basis of rumors and allegations.

A total of 151 professionals blacklisted and named by Counterattack, a right-wing journal, were forced to either cease their careers for a period of time before resuming them, like Lena Horne, and others, such as John Garfield, had their careers terminated for life. The lists were comprised of artists from a variety of different professions: actors, poets, journalists, musicians and authors, with very notable personalities included, namely, Arthur Miller, Langston Hughes and Orson Welles.

Images & Captions: The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images, LIFE